LECCIÓN LVII. PREPOSICIONES QUE ACOMPAÑAN A LOS VERBOS.

Abalanzarse. | To rush, to spring.
Concordar. | To agree.
Cumplir. | To fulfil, to keep, to do (duty).
Conversar. | To converse.
Entregar. | To give, to hand, to deliver.
Escapar. | To escape.
Honrar. | To honor.
Participar. | To participate, to partake.
Regir. | To govern.
Auxiliar. | To help.

EXPLICACIÓN

271. It is a general custom, amongst authors of Spanish grammars and Spanish methods, to copy entire the forty pages devoted by the Spanish Academy in its Grammar to a list of verbs requiring certain prepositions after them. But we, not withstanding our most profound respect for the body just mentioned, refrain from following in the footsteps of our predecessors, and that not merely on account of the uselessness of the list, but for the more potent reason that we believe it to be calculated to misguide the student at every step. An example: — Any one not thoroughly acquainted with Spanish syntax would, on reading the very first article in the list above referred to, Abalanzarse a los peligros, naturally conclude there from that the verb abalanzar governs at all times and under all circumstances the preposition a. Now that would be absurd, for nothing is more usual than to see, and hear the expressions: — Abalanzarse contra (or sobre) su enemigo, abalanzarse con (or sin) juicio, abalanzarse para sacudir, de repente, &c. And so of all the other verbs, each of which may, according to the idea to be conveyed, govern almost any preposition in the language.

It would be vain to attempt to give, in a work of the nature of the present one, a complete set of rules for determining the various significations of every verb as decided or modified by the attendant preposition; but, as much can be done, even here, toward helping the student through the most difficult parts, we could not resist giving in this day’s Composition a list composed of those verbs which are at the same time of most frequent occurrence in general everyday conversation, and susceptible of the greatest diversity of meaning, according to the preposition by which they are followed.

Before dismissing this subject we deem it convenient to remark that a large number of English verbs, to determine the meaning of which a preposition is indispensable, are rendered in Spanish by a verb alone. For example :

Bajar. | To go down.
Entrar. | To come in.
Salir. | To go out.
Subir. | To go up.
Sacar. | To draw out.
Partir. | To set out.
Caer. | To fall down.

This may be the reason why many Spanish grammarians have thought that in Spanish the same thing does not exist. We regret that the dimensions of our book do not allow of our giving a more complete list in corroboration of the fact that Spanish verbs too enjoy that transition of signification which is so frequent in English verbs.

VOCABULARIO

Honrado. | Honest, honored.
Plural. | Plural.
Singular. | Singular.

Barón. | Baron.
Joya. | Jewel.
Crédito. | Credit.
Agudeza. | Wit, witty saying.
Encargo. | Commission, charge, order.
Cocina. | Kitchen.
Género. | Kind, cloth.
Confianza. | Confidence.
Empleo. | Employment, office.
Espada. | Sword.
Fuga. | Flight.
Plato. | Plate, dish.
Gracia. | Favor, good graces.
Número. | Number.
Manía. | Mania.
Régimen. | Regimen.
Promesa. | Promise.
Tema. | Theme, exercise.
Pretensión. | Pretension, claim.
Diptongo. | Diphthong.
Concordancia. | Concord, agreement.
Triptongo. | Triphthong.
Hombre. | Man.
Versión. | Version.
Error. | Error, mistake.

REDACCIÓN

Acordarse con alguno. | To agree with any one.
Acordarse de alguno. | To remember any one.
Caer a la plaza. | To front on the square (said of a house).
Caer en la plaza. | To fall in the square.
Caer de la gracia de alguno. | To fall from any one’s favor (or good graces).
Caer en gracia a alguno. | To get into any one’s favor (or good graces).
Contar una cosa. | To relate, to tell a thing.
Contar con una cosa. | To count upon a thing.
Convenir a uno. | To suit (to be convenient for) any one.
Convenir con uno. | To agree with any one.
Cumplir con uno. | To do one’s duty toward any one.
Cumplir por uno. | To act in the place of any one.
Dar algo. | To give any thing.
Dar con algo. | To find any thing.
Dar en una cosa. | To be obstinate.
Dar por algo. | To give for any thing.
Dar crédito. | To give credit, to believe.
Dar a crédito. | To give on credit.
Dar la mano. | To give the band (or to shake hands).
Dar de mano. | To lay aside, to abandon.
Dar en manos de. | To fall into the hands of.
Dar con el pié.  | To despise, to scorn, to make light of.
Dar por el pié. | To overthrow.
Dar fin (or cabo) a una cosa. | To bring to an end, to finish.
Dar fin de una cosa. | To destroy.
Declararse a alguno. | To confide one’s secrets to any one.
Declararse por alguno. | To side with any one, to declare one’s self in favor of any one.
Dejar hacer algo. | To let any thing be done.
Dejar de hacer algo. | To leave any thing undone.
Deshacerse alguna cosa. | (Speaking of things) to be destroyed.
Deshacerse de alguna cosa. | To dispose of (or part with) any thing.
Disponer sus joyas. | To arrange one’s jewelry.
Disponer de sus joyas. | To dispose of one’s jewelry.
Echar tierra a una cosa. | To forget any thing, to cast it into oblivion.
Echar un genero en tierra. | To throw any thing on the ground (or down).
Entender una cosa. | To understand a thing.
Entender en una cosa. | To be a judge of a thing.
Entregarse al dinero. | To make a god of one’s money.
Entregarse del dinero. | To receive, to take charge of money.
Escapar a buenas. | To make the best of one’s escape.
Escapar de buenas. | To make a happy escape.
Estar en alguna cosa. | To be aware of any thing.
Estar sobre alguna cosa. | To push an affair.
Estar a todo. | To be ready for whatever may come.
Estar en todo. | To pay attention to every matter.
Estar con cuidado. | To be anxious, solicitous.
Estar de cuidado. | To be dangerously ill.
Estar en sí. | To have complete consciousness.
Estar sobre sí. | To be proud.
Estar con alguno. | To be with any one, to be of any one’s opinion.
Estar por alguno. | To favor any one.
Estar en hacer alguna cosa. | To be resolved (or disposed) to do any thing.
Estar para hacer alguna cosa. | To be about to do any thing.
Estar por hacer alguna cosa. | To be inclined to do something.
Estar alguna cosa por hacer. | To remain to be done.
Gustar un plato. | To taste a dish (of any kind of food).
Gustar de un plato. | To be fond of a dish.
Hacer confianza a una persona. | To tell a secret to any one.
Hacer confianza de una persona. | To make a confident of any one, to trust to any one.
Hacer una cosa con tiempo. | To do a thing at one’s leisure (so as not to be pressed for time).
Hacer una cosa en tiempo. | To do a thing in time, at a suitable time.
Hacerse a una cosa. | To get used to a thing.
Hacerse con una cosa. | To get (or procure) a thing.
Hacerse de una cosa. | To provide one’s self with a thing.
Hallarse algo. | To find any thing.
Hallarse con algo. | To be in possession of (or have) anything.
Ir con alguno. | To go with anybody, to be of any one’s opinion, to be on any one’s side, to listen to any one.
Ir sobre alguno. | To fall upon (or attack) any one.
Mayor de edad. | To be of age.
Mayor en edad. | To be older.
Participar una cosa. | To communicate any thing (to another).
Participar de una cosa. | To participate in any thing.
Poner una cosa en tierra. | To lay any thing on the ground.
Poner una cosa por tierra. | To make little of a thing.
Poner con cuidado. | To put (or place, or lay) with care.
Poner en cuidado. | To alarm, to give anxiety.
Preguntar a uno. | To ask any one (interrogate).
Preguntar por uno. | To ask (or inquire) for any thing.
Quedar en hacer una cosa. | To agree to do any thing.
Quedar una cosa por hacer. | To remain to be done (speaking of things).
Responder una cosa. | To answer something (giving an answer).
Responder de una cosa. | To answer for any thing.
Saber a cocina. | To smell (or taste) of the kitchen.
Saber de cocina. | To be skilful in (or to imderstand) cooking.
Salir con una empresa. | To carry out an enterprise.
Salir de una empresa. | To give up an enterprise.
Salir a su padre. | To resemble one’s father.
Salir con su padre. | To go out with one’s father.
Salir de su padre. | To be released from the wardship of one’s father.
Salir por su padre. | To go bail for one’s father.
Ser con alguno. | To be of any one’s opinion.
Ser de alguno. | To belong to any one’s party.
Ser para alguno. | To be for any one (of things).
Tener consigo. | To have with (or about) one.
Tener para ti. | To be persuaded.
Tener de hacer algo. | To be going to do any thing.
Tener que hacer algo. | To have to do any thing.
Tirar la espada. | To throw down (or away) one’s sword.
Tirar de la espada. | To draw one’s sword.
Tratar de vinos. | To talk about wines.
Tratar en vinos. | To deal in wines.
Vender al contado. | To sell for cash.
Vender de contado. | To sell on the instant.
Volver a la razón. | To recover one’s reason.
Volver por la razón. | To stand up for reason (or what is right).
Volver en razón de tal cosa. | To return for such a reason (or motive).

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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