LECCIÓN LIV. Uso de las conjunciones en inglés y español.

Apegarse. | To adhere to, to be attached.
Criar. | To raise (breed), to bring up.
Concebir. | To conceive.
Continuar. | To continue.
Encerrar. | To shut up.
Guardar. | To guard, to take care, to keep.
Pintar. | To paint.
Presidir. | To preside.
Ponderar. | To make much of, to praise.
Combatir. | To combat.
Reducir. | To reduce.
Rodar. | To roll.
Sacudir. | To shake, to shake off.
Tirar. | To pull, to draw, to throw, to throw out (or away).
Llenar. | To fill.
Entusiasmar. | To render enthusiastic.

EXPLICACIÓN

267. There are several conjunctions in English that are frequently used as substitutes for other words; these conjunctions are generally rendered in Spanish by the words which they stand in the place of; as,
Los vimos cuando entrábamos. | We saw them as we were going in.
Di si quieres venir o no. | Say whether you will come or not.

268. The Spanish conjunctions are also often used as substitutes for other words of very different meanings. Let si and que serve as examples:
Si, as an adverb, is, as we have already observed, affirmative, except when employed ironically. Si, as a conjunction, may be employed in a variety of significations. The following are some of its principal uses:

1st. To denote the condition on which depends the accomplishment of an action; as,
Si quieres acompañarme, voy a salir. | If you will accompany me, I am going out.

2d. To express indispensable conditions; as,
Tendrás el caballo si lo pagas. | You will have the horse if you pay for it.

3d. In the sense of although, or even though; as,
No lo haría si me importara la vida (i. e., aunque or por mas que, me importara la vida). | I would not do it, even though my life were at stake.

4th. In familiar conversation this conjunction is often employed in meanings very different from those we have just explained. For instance, it is often used instead of es que, it is because; cuando, when; porque, because; and not unfrequently instead of ya, already, as we read in one of Moratin’s comedies:
Si (es que) acabo de entrar. | I have but just come in.
Si (cuando) él al cabo ha de venir. | For, after all, he must come.
Si (es que) no es eso. | But that is not it.
Si (ya) lo dije. | But I said so (or did say so).
Si (porque) no hay cosa que yo haga. | For I do nothing at all.

6th. It is often used redundantly; as,
Apenas si se oía el confuso rumor de los pasos. | The confused tramping of feet could scarcely be heard.

VOCABULARIO

Al cabo. | After all, finally, at the end.
De repente. | Suddenly, on a sudden.
No obstante. | However.
Si acaso. | If at all, in case.
Si bien. | Although.
Amarillo. | Yellow.
Azul. | Blue.
Naranja. | Orange.
Atento. | Attentive.
Confuso. | Confused.
Feroz. | Pierce.
Bondadoso. | Kind.
Favorito. | Favorite.
Griego. | Greek.
Añil. | Indigo.
Ligero. | Liglit, slight, speedy.
Lleno. | Full.
Montaraz. | Mountaineer, wild.
Vistoso. | Conspicuous, showy.
Colorado, rojo. | Red.
Romano. | Roman.
Particular. | Particular, private, rare.
Picante. | Pungent.
Temerario. | Daring, rash.
Violeta. | Violet (color).
Verde. | Green.
Prismático. | Prismatic.
Cabo. | End.
Algazara. | Shouts (of joy).
Circo. | Siege, circus.
Autoridad. | Authority.
Color. | Color.
Confusión. | Confusion.
Bullicio. | Rumpus, noise, bustle.
Carcajada. | Burst of laughter.
Corrida. | Fight (bull), race.
Ceremonial. | Ceremony.
Violeta. | Violet (flower).
Espectro solar. | Solar spectrum.
Diversión. | Diversion.
Goce. | Delight, joy.
Clase. | Class.
Dicho. | Saying.
Infancia. | Infancy.
Desierto. | Desert.
Idea. | Idea.
Interés. | Interest.
Fiesta. | Feast, festival, party.
Guante. | Glove.
León. | Lion.
Ocupación. | Occupation.
Local. | Situation.
Corrida de toros. | Bull-fight.
Entusiasmo. | Enthusiasm.
Pelota. | Ball.
Enemigo. | Enemy.
Plaza de toros. | Arena.
Lloros. | Tears, cry.
Proeza. | Prowess, exploits.
Paso. | Step, pace.
Sonrisa. | Smile.
Prisma. | Prism.
Valentía. | Bravery.
Rumor. | Rumor.
Jaula. | Cage.
Ser. | Being.
Traje. | Dress, costume.
Recibimiento. | Reception.
Suelo. | Ground.
Grito. | Shout, cry.

REDACCIÓN

– Los vimos cuando entrábamos.
– We saw them as we were going in.

– Si no hubiera sido por mí, le habrían matado.
– But for me, they would have killed him.

– Yo iría si no creyera que fuese inútil.
– I would go, but that I think it useless.

– Diga V. si vendrá o no.
– Say whether you will come or not.

– Que venga o que no venga.
– Whether he come or not.

– Dudo que lo sepa.
– I doubt whether she knows it.

– Por atentos y bondadosos que sean (or no obstante lo atentos que son) y por bondadosos que sean.
– However attentive they are, and however kind thej may be.

– Deberías cuidarte, porque si no te enfermaras.
– You must take care of yourself, for if you do not you will be ill.

– Deberías obedecer las órdenes; de lo contrario sufrirá las consecuencias.
– You must obey the orders ; for if you transgress them, you will suffer the consequences.

– Yo tengo razón o él la tiene.
– Either I am right or he is.

– Ni prometas ni actúes sin pensar.
– Neither promise nor act without thinking.

– No lo haría si me importara la vida (i. e., aunque, or por mas que me importara la vida).
– I would not do it, though my life were at stake.

– Valiente si los hay.
– A valiant man, if there are any in the world.

– Tuvo el valor, si tal nombre merece una acción temeraria de combatir solo contra tantos enemigos.
– He had the courage, if the rash action of fighting alone against so many enemies is worthy of such a name.

– Quiero saber si emplea bien el tiempo.
– I wish to know whether he employs his time profitably.

– ¿Si habrá llegado el correo?
– If the mail should have arrived?

– Mira si viene.
– See if he is coming.

– No sé si lo haga.
– I do not know whether to do. 

– Si (es que) acabo de entrar.
– It or not I have but just come in.

– Si (cuando) él al cabo ha de venir.
– For, after all, he must come.

– Si (es que) no es eso.
– But that is not it.

– Si (ya) lo dije.
– But I said so.

– Si (porque) no hay cosa que yo haga.
– For I do nothing at all.

– Apenas si se oía el confuso rumor de los pasos.
– The confused tramping of feet could scarcely be heard.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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