LECCIÓN LII. EL PARTICIPIO PASADO

Aconsejar. | To counsel, to advise.
Aprovechar. | To profit, to embrace (profit by).
Consistir. | To consist.
Colorear. | To color (paintings).
Citar. | To quote, to cite.
Costar. | To cost.
Comunicar. | To communicate.
Demostrar. | To demonstrate, to point out.
Deteriorar. | To deteriorate.
Expresar. | To express.
Freir. | To fry.
Grabar. | To engrave, to fix (in the memory).
Tomarse (el trabajo). | To take the trouble.
Prender. | To take up, to arrest.
Perfeccionar. | To perfect.
Merecer. | To merit, to deserve.
Reunir. | To gather, to assemble, to reunite.
Remunerar. | To remunerate.
Visitar. | To visit, to search.

EXPLICACIÓN

258. PAST PARTICIPLES. Some past participles retain the regimen of their verbs; as,

Enemistado con su primo. | On bad terms with his cousin.

259. The past participle must agree in gender and number with the subject or determining verb, except when that determining verb is haber; in which case the past participle is indeclinable, whatever be the gender and number of the subject; as,

Ha cantado una canción. | He has sung a song.
Los caballos que han comprado los mercaderes. | The horses that the dealers have bought.

But the past participle, if it comes after the auxiliaries ser, estar, quedar, or any other, except haber, agrees with the subject in gender and number; as,

Los caballos que fueron comprados por los mercaderes. | The horses that were bought by the dealers.
Están (o quedan) demostradas estas verdades. | These truths are (or remain) demonstrated.

260. Some verbs have two past participles, one regular and the other irregular. These are used very differently, since the irregular one, being a true noun, is employed in an absolute sense only, and never signifies motion, whether in the active or in the passive form. For this reason the latter may be accompanied by the verbs ser, estar, quedar, and others, but never by the auxiliary haber; inasmuch as it would be improper to say: hubo convicto, he contracto, instead of, hubo convencido, he contraído.

261. The irregular participles frito, fried; preso, taken prisoner; provisto, provided, and roto, broken, are the only ones that can be used with the verb haber, to form the compound tenses; as,

La cocinera había frito (o freido) el pescado. | The cook had fried the fish.
Han prendido (o cogido preso) al culpable. | They have taken (or arrested) the offender.
No sé si habrán ya proveído (o provisto) el empleo. | I do not know whether they have already provided (a person to fill) the office.
Has roto el vaso (never say Has rompido el vaso). | You have broken the glass.

262. The verb matar, in the sense of to take away life, has the extraordinary irregularity of appropriating for its past participle that of the verb morir; the participle matado being used to express wounds or sores in animals, resulting from the rubbing of the harness, or from cruel treatment; as,

Un caballo matado. | A horse with a sore back.
Un caballo muerto. | A dead horse.
Un paisano le ha matado. | A countryman killed him.
El capitán fue matado por sus soldados. | The captain was killed by his soldiers.

But in speaking of a person that has committed suicide, we must say:

Se ha matado (and not Se ha muerto). | Ho has killed himself.

263. Some past or passive participles take an active signification, but only referring to persons; as,

Un joven leido, de provecho y callado. | A well read, thrifty and silent youth.

264. Past participles may sometimes take the place of substantives, and the difference can be known only by the antecedents and subsequents, as in this sentence:

Es un hecho que la Última Cena de Da Vinci está felizmente expresada en el grabado de Morghen, no obstante que le falta el colorido de la pintura. | It is a fact, that “The Last Supper” by Da Vinci is happily expressed in the engraving of Morghen, notwithstanding the latter lacks the coloring of the painting.

Where the words hecho, grabado and colorido, are substantives. The same words appear as participles in the following phrases:
Aunque el fresco de la Última Cena, hecho por Da Vinci, está mal colorido y deteriorado, ha sido grabado con acierto por Morghen. | Although the fresco of “The Last Supper,” made by Da Vincí, is badly colored and deteriorated, it has been engraved with success by Morghen.

265. Other grammarians add one more tense in the infinitive mood; as,

Haber de amar. | To have to love.
Habiendo de amar. | Having to love.

But such a classification is no longer essential, nor even correct.
In early Spanish literature that form frequently occurs, performing the office now almost exclusively filled by the regular terminations of the tenses, and chiefly those of the future indicative and the imperfect of the subjunctive.

VOCABULARIO

Por ejemplo. | For instance.
Que yo sepa. | For all I know.

List of the Irregular Past Participles of all the Verbs already introduced.
Abierto. | Opened.
Frito. | Fried.
Bendito. | Blessed.
Hecho. | Done.
Contradicho. | Contradicted.
Impuesto. | Imposed.
Convicto. | Convicted.
Muerto. | Died.
Compuesto. | Composed.
Manifiesto. | Manifested.
Dicho. | Said, told.
Oculto. | Hidden, concealed.
Devuelto. | Given back, returned.
Opuesto. | Opposed.
Dispuesto. | Disposed.
Preso. | Taken, arrested.
Escrito. | Written.
Puesto. | Placed, put.
Electo. | Elected.
Provisto. | Provided.
Expreso. | Expressed.
Roto. | Broken.
Expuesto. | Exposed.
Satisfecho. | Satisfied.
Visto. | Seen.
Vuelto. | Returned.

Amplio. | Ample.
Actual. | Present.
Antiguo. | Ancient, old.
Contemporáneo. | Contemporary.
Enemistado. | At variance, on bad terms.
Dramático. | Dramatic.
Moderno. | Modern.
Honroso. | Honorable.
Político. | Political.
Cocinero. | Cook.
Amenidad. | Agreeableness, amenity.
Capitán. | Captain.
Acierto. | Success.
Biblioteca. | Library.
Colorido. | Coloring.
Cena. | Supper.
Grabado. | Engraving.
Comedia. | Comedy, play.
Fresco. | Cool, refreshing, air.
Costumbre. | Custom, habit.
Erudición. | Erudition.
Empleo. | Employment.
Fuente. | Fountain, source.
Drama. | Drama.
Existencia. | Existence.
Estilo. | Style.
Elegancia. | Elegance.
Joven. | Young.
Juventud. | Youth.
Instrucción. | Instruction, learning.
Mercader. | Dealer.
Paisano. | Countryman.
Ignorancia. | Ignorance.
Hecho. | Action, fact.
Mención. | Mention.
Siglo. | Century.
Literatura. | Literature.
Verso. | Verse.
Mediania. | Moderation, mediocrity.
Soldado. | Soldier.
Prosa. | Prose.
Novela. | Novel.
Política. | Politics.
Tragedia. | Tragedy.
Vasija. | Vase, vessel.

REDACCIÓN

– Está enemistado con su primo.
He is on bad terms with his cousin.

– Colocado en vasijas.
Placed in vases (or vessels).

– Ha cantado una canción española.
He has sung a Spanish song.

– Los caballos que han comprado los mercaderes no son buenos.
The horses the dealers have bought are not good.

– Los caballos que fueron comprados por los mercaderes son buenos.
The horses that were bought by the dealers are good.

– Están (o quedan) demostradas estas verdades.
These truths are (or remain) demonstrated.

– La cocinera había frito (o freído) el pescado.
The cook had fried the fish.

– Han prendido (o preso) al culpable.
They have arrested the offender.

– No sé si habrán ya proveido (o provisto) el empleo.
I do not know whether they have already provided (a person to fill) the office.

– Has roto el vaso.
You have broken the glass.

– ¿Ha visto V. un caballo muerto?
Have you seen a dead horse?

– No, pero he visto un caballo matado.
No, but I have seen a horse with a sore back.

– ¿Quién ha matado a ese caballo?
Who killed that horse?

– Un paisano le ha matado.
A countryman killed it.

– El capitán fue matado por sus soldados.
The captain was killed by his soldiers.

– Él se ha matado.
He killed himself.

– Él se ha muerto.
He died.

– Ese es un joven muy leido, muy activo y muy callado.
That young man is well read, makes the most of his opportunities, and talks little.

– Es un hecho que la Última Cena de Da Vinci está felizmente expresada en el grabado de Mórghen, no obstante le falta el colorido de la pintura.
It is a fact that Da Vinci’s “Last Supper” is happily expressed in Morghen’s engraving, notwithstanding the latter lacks the coloring of the painting.

– Aunque el fresco de la Última Cena, hecho por Da Vinci, está mal de color y deteriorado, ha sido grabado con acierto por Mórghen.
Although the fresco of the “Lost Supper,” made by Da Vinci, is badly colored, and deteriorated, it has been engraved with success by Morghen.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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