Acudir. | To hasten (to a place), to refer.
Agregar. | To add.
Añadir. | To add.
Componer. | To compose, to mend, to fix.
Contener. | To contain.
Incluir. | To include.
Facilitar. | To facilitate.
Ofrecer. | To offer.


242. DERIVATIVE NOUNS. These nouns constitute one of the chief sources of the richness of the Spanish language; we have already introduced some of them in previous lessons, when treating of augmentative and diminutive terminations.
These terminations are very numerous, both for the substantives and adjectives, and each one of them determines the general signification of the derivative noun. As it would be impossible to give in this place a complete list of all these terminations, we shall endeavor to lay before the student such of them as are to be found in most common use.

243. The terminations aco, acho, alla and uza, denote inferiority; as

Libraco. | A contemptible old book.
Pajarraco. | An ugly bird.
Vinacho. | Bad wine.
Gentualla. | Rabble.
Carnuza. | Bad meat.

The termination acho is sometimes augmentative; as,

Ricacho. | Very rich.
Hombracho. | A big (or corpulent) man.

244. Ajo implies meanness, and the consequent contempt inspired by it; as,

Escobajo. | An old stump of a broom.
Latinajo. | Dog Latin.

245. The terminations al, ar, ego, ico, il, isco, in adjectives, commonly denoto the quality of the thing; as,

Artificial. | Artificial.
Familiar. | Familiar.
Gigantesco. | Gigantic.
Picaresco. | Roguish.
Clásico. | Classic.
Chinesco. | Chinese.

246. In substantives the same terminations, al, ar, and also eda and edo, serve to form collective nouns; as,

Arboleda. | Grove.
Arenal. | Sandy ground.
Manzanar. | Apple orchard.
Pinar. | Pine grove.

247. The terminations ante, ario, ente, ero, ista and or are for the most part expressive of use, sect, profession, trade, or occupation; as,

Estudiante. | Student.
Boticario. | Druggist.
Zapatero. | Shoemarker.
Organista. | Organist.
Protestante. | Protestant.
Calvinista. | Calvinist.
Pintor. | Painter.

248. The termination astro signifies inferiority in a superlative degree; as, filosofastro, a despicable philosopher; poetastro, poetaster; and it is curious to observe that it also serves
to express the degrees of relationship existing between those persons who more generally hate than love each other; as,

Hermanastro. | Step-brother.
Hijastro. | Step-son.
Padrastro. | Step-father.
Madrastra. | Step-mother.

249. Ble corresponds to the same termination in English; as,

Aborrecible. | Hateful.
Creible. | Credible.
Mudable. | Changeable.
Amable. | Amiable.

250. Ismo corresponds to the English termination ism; as,

Catolicismo. | Catholicism.
Protestantismo. | Protestantism.

251. The names of nationalities are also derivatives, and have their terminations in ero, es, eño; as,

Habanero. Havanese.
Francés. French, Frenchman.
Madrileño. Madrilenian.

252. Many patronymic, or family, names are also derivatives; for instance, Álvarez, Domínguez, Fernández, Rodríguez, Sánchez, &c, were the names that were given to the sons of the Álvaros, Domingos, Fernandos, Rodrigos, Sanchos, &c, changing the final o into ez.


Por instruido que sea. | However learned he may be.

Anteriormente. | Formerly, previously.
Comparativamente. | Comparatively.
Corrientemente. | Currently, fluently.
Fluidamente. | Fluently.
Suficiente. | Sufficient.
En general. | In general.
Generalmente. | Generally.
Considerablemente. | Considerably.
Particularmente. | Particularly, privately.

En cuanto a. | As to, as for.

Artificial. | Artificial.
Anterior. | Anterior, previous.
Aborrecible. | Hateful.
Celeste, azul celeste. | Celestial, sky-blue.
Celestial. | Celestial, heavenly.
Célico. | Celestial, heavenly.
Chinesco. | Chinese.
Creible. | Credible.
Despreciable. | Despicable.
Familiar. | Familiar.
Gigantesco. | Gigantic.
Terrestre. | Terrestrial, earthly.
Territorial. | Territorial.
Terroso. | Terreous, earthy.
Terrado, terrero. | Terrace.
Terrenal. | Terrestrial, earthly.
Terrón. | Lump (or clod) of earth.
Ricacho. | Very rich.
Picaresco. | Roguish.
Patronímico. | Patronymic.
Propio. | Proper, own.
Mudable. | Chargeable.
Verbal. | Verbal.

Arenal. | Sandy (ground).
Arboleda. | Grove.
Ascenso. | Promotion.
Ascension. | Ascension.
Álvarez. | Álvarez.
Carnuza. | Bad meat.
Calvinista. | Calvinist.
Creencia. | Belief, credence.
Catolicismo. | Catholicism.
Ciencia. | Science.
Diccionario. | Dictionary.
Gentuza. | Rabble.
Escobajo. | A bad broom.
Madrastra. | Step-mother.
Boticario. | Druggist, apothecary.
Terminación. | Termination.
Dicha. | Happiness.
Domínguez. | Domínguez.
Isla. | Island.
Fernández. | Fernández.
Educación. | Education.
Idiotismo. | Idiom.
Escoba. | Broom.
Filosofastro. | Philosophaster.
Excusa. | Excuse.
Hijastro. | Step-son.
Explicación. | Explanation.
Hermanastro. | Step-brother.
Espada. | Sword.
Hombracho. | Corpulent.
Exclamación. | Exclamation.
Libraco. | A contemptible book
Firma. | Signature.
Gota. | Drop.
Pajarraco. | An ugly bird.
Figura. | Figure, appearance.
Latinajo. | Dog Latin.
Manzanar. | Apple orchard.
Facción. | Feature.
Pinar. | Pine grove.
Factura. | Invoice.
Protestante. | Protestant.
Facultad. | Faculty, power.
Padrastro. | Step-father.
Adquisicion. | Acquirement.
Significado. | Signification, meaning.
Astronomia. | Astronomy.
Vinacho. | Bad wine.
Protestantismo. | Protestantism.
Habanero. | Havanese.
Madrileño. | Madrilenian.
Rodríguez. | Rodríguez.
Sánchez. | Sánchez.
Amante. | Lover, sweet-heart.
Árbol. | Tree.
Amador. | Lover.


– ¿Por qué lee V. ese libraco?
Why do you read that contemptible old book?

– Porque no tengo otro; pero V. se equivoca, es un libro clásico excelente.
Because I have no other; but you are mistaken, it is an excellent classic (book).

– ¿Conoce V. a aquel ricacho?
Do you know that rich man?

– Le conozco; pero no le trato, porque es un hombracho que solo le gusta tratarse con gentuza.
I know him; but I have no intercourse with him, because he is a low man, whose taste is to associate only with the rabble.

– Juan, no barras con ese escobajo, que ensucia más que limpia.
John, do not sweep with that old stump of a broom; it dirties more than it cleans.

– La carne buena se vende a treinta centavos la libra; la carnuza a veinte.
Good meat sells at thirty cents a pound, poor (bad) meat at twenty.

– En la América del Norte hay mas protestantes que católicos.
There are more Protestants than Catholics in North America.

– Los boticarios en los Estados Unidos no solo venden medicinas, sino perfumería, cigarros y otras muchas cosas.
In the United States the druggists sell not only medicines, but perfumery, cigars, and many other things.

– ¿Vive el Señor Fernández con su padre?
Does Mr. Fernandez live with his father?

– No, señor, porque no quiere vivir con su madrastra y hermanastros.
No, sir; because he does not wish to live with his step-mother and step-brothers.

– ¿Es V. madrileño?
Are you a Madrilenian?

– No, señor, soy Habanero.
No, sir, I am a Havanese.

– Aquel filosofastro es despreciable.
That philosophaster is a despicable (man).

– Esa señorita es muy amable; pero muy mudable.
That young lady is very amiable, but very changeable.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.



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