LECCIÓN XLV. Subjuntivo.

Avisar. | To advise, to notify, to let one know.
Admirar. | To admire.
Aconsejar. | To counsel, to advise.
Apremiar. | To urge, to compel one to do anything by order of court.

* Remember that English words italicised are not to be translated.

EXPLICACIÓN

219. The future simple of the subjunctive mood represents a contingent action as to take place some time hence; as,

Te escribiré lo que me dijeres. | I will write to you what he may (happen to) say to me.
Le perdonarán todo lo que hiciere. | They will forgive him everything he may do in future.
Si permaneciere aquí algún tiempo se lo avisaré. | If I should (or should I) remain here any time I shall let you know.

220. The present of the subjunctive may be substituted for the foregoing tense, except when the verb is preceded by the conditional si; as, Te escribiré lo que digas.
Le perdonarán lo que haga.

221. The future compound, which is not so much used as the simple, denotes a contingent action subordinate to a future event; as,

Si hubiere salido cuando llegues. | If he should have left when you arrive.
Aunque hubiere llegado antes que reciba la carta. | Although he may have arrived before he receives the letter.

222. The compound present of the subjunctive may be substituted for the above tense, except when the verb is preceded by the conditional si; as, aunque haya llegado antes que reciba la carta.

223. In order that the imperfect and pluperfect of the subjunctive, which also express a future contingent action or event, be not misapplied, as too frequently they are, and confounded with the future simple and compound future of the same mood, the following distinction must be attentively observed:

1st. That the imperfect and pluperfect may be employed when the actions or events expressed in the sentence are future only in reference to some other time expressed, or merely implied, in the sentence.

2d. That the future simple and compound future must be used when the contingent action or event implied in the sentence is future with regard to the action expressed by the determining verbs; as,

El general mandó que todos los que desertaran fuesen fusilados. |The general ordered that all those who should (might happen to) desert should be shot.
El general mandó que todos los que hubieran desertado fuesen fusilados. | The general ordered that all those who had (might have) deserted should be shot.
El general ha mandado que todos los que desertaren sean fusilados. | The general has ordered that all those who desert (i. e. may happen to desert) shall be shot.
El general ha mandado que todos los que hubieren desertado sean fusilados. | The general has ordered that all those who have deserted shall be shot.

224. The future simple and the compound future of the subjunctive also act as determining verbs; but they govern the subordinate verb only in the present or the future simple of the indicative, and in the imperative; as.

Quien lo dijere, miente. | Whoever should say so will lie.
Si viniere serd bien recibido. | If he should come, he shall be well received.
Si para fines de año no hubiere pagado, le apremias, or apremiale or le apremiarás. | If at the end of the year he has not paid you, compel him to do so.

These determining sentences of the future simple of the subjunctive may be turned to the present indicative in certain cases, and to the present subjunctive in others; as,

Si viene, or como venga, será bien recibido. | If he comes, he shall be well received.
Quien tal diga miente. | Whoever says so lies.

VOCABULARIO

Afectar. | To feign, to affect.
Compadecer. | To pity.
Convertir. | To convert.
Desertar. | To desert.
Empeñar. | To pledge, to engage.
Explicar. | To explain.
Fusilar. | To shoot.
Guardar. | To guard, to observe, to keep.
Librar. | To free, to liberate, to deliver.
Mentir. | To lie.
Mencionar. | To mention.
Permanecer. | To remain.
Relatar. | To relate.
Santificar. | To sanctify.
Suceder. | To happen, to succeed.
Sonar. | To sound.
Volar. | To fly.

¡Ah bah! | Oh, pshaw!
¡Toma! | Indeed!

Ancho. | Wide, broad.
Falso. | False.
Calvo. | Bald.
Famoso. | Famous.
Notorio. | Notorious, well known.
Crédulo. | Credulous.
Crítico. | Critical.
Formal. | Formal, straightforward.
Supersticioso. | Superstitious.
Escéptico. | Skeptic, skeptical.

De todo corazón. | With all my heart.
En su interior. | In his mind.
Ya caigo. | I see (or understand).
Bienvenido. | Welcome.
A cual mas. | Vieing with each other.
De buena fe. | In good faith.
Esto es. | That is.
Ya lo ves. | So you see.

Sol. | Sun.
Amor. | Love.
Oración. | Prayer.
Tierra. | Earth, land.
Cielo. | Ski, heaven.
Reino. | Kingdom.
Fin. | End, purpose.
Deudor. | Debtor.
General. | General.
Cuervo. | Eaven, crow.
Agüero. | Omen.
Interior. | Interior.
Espíritu. | Spirit.
Lodo. | Mud.
Tren. | Train.
Parroquiano. | Parishioner, customer.
Lector. | Reader.
Calva. | Baldness, the bald part.
Voluntad. | Will, choice.
Profecía. | Prophecy.
Fisonomía. | Physiognomy.
Tentación. | Temptation.
Sinceridad. | Sincerity.
Injusticia. | Injustice.
Ridiculez. | Ridicule.
Compasión. | Compassion.
Materia. | Matter.
Bolsa. | Purse.
Excepción. | Exception.
Frente. | Forehead.
Formalidad. | Formality. 

 REDACCIÓN

– Si para fines de año no hubiere pagado, le apremias (or apremiale, or le apremiarás).
– If at the end of the year he has not paid you, compel him to do so.

– Si viene (or como venga) sera bien recibido.
– If he comes, he shall be well received.

– Quien tal diga miente.
– Whoever says such a thing lies.

– Si al salir de tu casa vieres volar cuervos, déjalos volar y mira tú donde pones los pies.
– If on going out of your house you should see crows fly, let them fly, and look where you put your own feet.

– Todo hombre calvo no tendrá pelo; y si tuviere alguno no sera en la calva.
– Every bald man will be without hair; or if he should have any, it will not be on the bald part.

– Le perdonarán todo lo que hiciere.
– They will forgive him every thing he may do.

– Te escribiré lo que me dijeres.
– I will write to you what he may (happen to) say to me.

– Si permaneciere aquí algún tiempo se lo avisaré.
– If I should (or should I) remain here any time, I will let you know.

– Te escribiré lo que digas.
– I will write to you what he may say to me.

– Le perdonarán lo que haga.
– They will forgive him every thing he may do.

– Si hubiere salido cuando tú llegues.
– If he should have left when you arrive.

– Aunque hubiere llegado antes que reciba la carta.
– Although he may have arrived before he receives the letter.

– Aunque haya llegado antes que reciba la carta.
– Although he may have arrived before he receives the letter.

– El general mando que todos los que desertaran fuesen fusilados.
– The general ordered that all those who might (happen to) desert should be shot.

– El general mandó que todos los que hubieran desertado fuesen fusilados.
– The general ordered that all those who might have deserted should be shot.

– El general ha mandado que todos los que desertaren sean fusilados.
– The general has ordered that all those who may desert (i. e. may happen to desert) should be shot.

– El general ha mandado que todos los que hubieren desertado sean fusilados.
– The general has ordered that all those who may have deserted be shot.

– Quien lo dijere miente.
– Whoever should say so will lie.

– Si viniere, será bien recibido.
–  If he should come, he will be well received.

– Si así lo hicieres.
– If you should do so. 

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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