LECCIÓN XXXVIII. INFINITIVOS, PARTICIPIOS Y GERUNDIOS.

VERBOS

Sentir.
To feel. To be sorry for.

VERBOS CONJUGADOS COMO SENTIR (3ª CONJUGACIÓN):

Arrepentirse. | To repent.
Consentir. | To consent.
Preferir. | To prefer.

EXPLICACIÓN

186. PRESENT PARTICIPLES. — Many Spanish verbs have, besides the past or passive participle, another called the present or active participle. Those formed from verbs of the first conjugation end in ante; as, amante, loving, lover; and those formed from the second and third end in iente or ente; as, asistente, assistant, obediente, obedient.

Participles of this kind cannot be formed from all verbs, and indeed those already in existence can only be regarded as mere verbal nouns or adjectives, inasmuch as, with the exception of a very limited number to be found in use, such as tocante, they do not follow the regimen of the verbs from which they are derived.

187. GERUNDS. — Instead of the present participle, as a part of the verb, the gerund is now employed, and it corresponds, therefore, exactly to the English progressive form in ing; as,
Entraron cantando. | They came in singing.
Le encontraron leyendo. | They found him reading.

188. The verb estar, as has already been mentioned, can be used with the gerund in Spanish, as in English the verb to be, with the present participle ; as,
Yo estoy leyendo. | I am reading.
Ellos están escribiendo. | They are writing.

189. The INTINITIVE is used in Spanish when in English the present participle, preceded by a preposition, is used ; as,
Se fue sin verle. | He went away without seeing him.
Trabaja sin descansar. | He labors without resting.

190. The INFINITIVE is also used as a verbal noun or present participle, in which case it takes the masculine definite article before it ; as,
Trabajar es bueno para la salud. | Work is good for the health.
Descansar después de trabajar mucho es necesario. | Rest is necessary after much work.

191. The INFINITIVE is often rendered in English by the present participle, when in Spanish it is governed by another verb; as,
La vimos bailar. | We saw her dancing.

VOCABULARIO

Asegurar. | To secure, to insure, to assure.
Animar. | To animate, to encourage, to induce.
Desanimar. | To dishearten, to discourage.
Ayudar. | To aid, to help.
Enfermar. | To fall (or get) sick, to make sick.
Exigir. | To exact, to require.
Quedar. | To remain.
Perfeccionar. | To perfect, to finish.
Usar. | To use, to wear.
Generalmente. | Generally.
De memoria. | By heart.
Ambos. | Both.
De continuo. | Continually.
Perezoso. | Lazy.
Examen. | Examination.
Oficio. | Trade, office.
Persona. | Person.
Lectura. | Reading, lecture.
Norte. | North.
Profesión. | Profession.
Sur, or sud. | South.
Escuela. | School.
Este, oriente. | East.
Muerte. | Death.
Oeste. Occidente. | West.
Vida. | Life.
Promesa. | Promise.

List of the present participles or verbal nouns and adjectives formed from the verbs already introduced.

Viviente. | Living being.
Paseante. | Walker, passerby, promenader.
Estudiante. | Student.
Escribiente. | A lawyer’s clerk, a writer in a commercial house.
Creyente. | Believer.
Conveniente. | Convenient, suitable.
Importante. | Important.
Residente. | Resident.
Tratante. | Dealer.
Tocante (en orden a). | Concerning.
Cortante. | Sharp, edged.
Gobernante. | Governing.
Contante. | Ready.
Saliente. | Salient.
Doliente. | Sad, afflicted, mournful.
Amante. | Lover.
Practicante. | Practitioner.
Principiante. | Beginner.

REDACCIÓN

– Tocante a lo que me dijiste el otro día, deseo que no se hable mas de ello.
– Concerning what you told me the other day, I wish no more to be said about it.

– Entraron cantando.
– They came in singing.

– Le encontraron leyendo.
– They found him reading.

– ¿Qué estás haciendo?
– What are you doing?

– Estoy leyendo.
– I am reading.

– Vengo de comer.
– I am coming from dinner.

– Trabaja sin descansar.
– He labors without resting.

– El trabajar es bueno para muchas cosas.
– Work is good for many things.

– El descansar después de trabajar es necesario.
– Rest after labor is necessary.

– La vimos bailar.
– We saw her dancing.

– Manuel es un estudiante industrioso.
– Manuel is an industrious student.

– ¿Eres residente de los Estados Unidos?
– Are you a resident of the United States?

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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