Yo atiendo. | I attend.
Tú tiendes. | You attend.
Él o ella atiende. | He or She attends.
Nosotros atendemos.| We attend.
Vosotros atendéis. | You attend.
Ellos o ellas atienden. | They attend.
Atiende tú. | Attend, &c.
Atienda él o ella. |
Atendáis vosotros. |
Atiendan ellos o ellas. |
Yo atienda. | I may, or can, attend, &c.
Tú atiendas. |
Él o ella atienda. |
Vosotros atendáis. |
Ellos o ellas atiendan. |
VERBOS QUE SE CONJUGAN COMO ATENDER (2ª CONJUGACIÓN)
Ascender. | To ascend, to mount.
Descender. | To descend.
Defender. | To defend.
Entender. | To understand.
Encender. | To light, to kindle.
Perder. | To lose.
179. ATENDER, to attend, and all the verbs conjugated like it, take an i before the last e of the radical letters, in the same tenses and persons as the verb acertar, and the same tense in which acostar and mover change the o into ue; i. e., in the first, second and third persons singular, and third plural of the present indicative, the present subjunctive, and the imperative.
180. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Unlike the indicative, this mood cannot of itself express an action or mode of being in such a manner as to form complete sense; but its signification is determined by another verb, to which it is subordinate, as its name indicates,* and by which it is governed, usually with the help of a conjunction, such as que, aunque, or a conjunctive expression, such as; a fin de que, con tal que, &c.
As none of the moods of the English verb correspond exactly to the Spanish subjunctive; and as the tenses of the letter are often employed to express, in the Castilian language, ideas which, in English, are conveyed by those of the indicative or the potential, and, not unfrequenlly, by the infinitive, learners experience much difficulty in determining when the subjunctive is to be used. Were we to give all the rules necessary for the correct application of this mood, a whole volume might be filled; we shall, however, give here those most likely to guide the student in all ordinary cases.
(*) Subjunctive, something joined, in a subordinate manner, to what has already been said.
181. The subordinate verb is put in the subjunctive when the leading verb means admiration, wish, will, desire, consent, prohibition, hinderance, necessity, command, doubt, regret, joy, usefulness, contentment, hope, fear, surprise, ignorance, preference, negation, permission, sorrow, &c.
The subjunctive mood is here required because we are not positive that what we wish, command, &c., will be accomplished; but the same verb which governs the subordinate one in any of the tenses of the subjunctive, when the accomplishment of the action is doubtful, governs it in any of those of the indicative when the action is regarded as certain to take place; as,
Déselo usted a los que hayan venido. | Give it to those who (may) have come.
Déselo usted a los cuatro que han venido. | Give it to the four who have (or are) come.
In the first example, the verb is put in the subjunctive, because the speaker is not positive how many have come, or whether any have as yet come. In the second, the indicative is employed, because the speaker is certain of the arrival of the person alluded to, and also of their number.
182. There are in Spanish certain conjunctions which require the subjunctive mood after them, on account of the indefinite and uncertain meaning which they commonly have.
Some of them, however, it will be seen, occasionally occur with a positive signification, and may, in that case, be used with the indicative after them; as,
No lo creeré aunque me lo digan mil. (Contingent.) | I will not believe it though a thousand tell it to me.
Lo creo aunque él me lo niega. (Certain) | I believe it, although he denies it (to me).
183. Finally, there are other parts of speech, and even whole phrases, which, on account of their indeterminate and doubtful, or contingent, meaning, require the subjunctive after them.
184. The present tense of the subjunctive marks a contingent action as going on at the present moment, or to take place at some future time; as,
Dudo que venga. | I doubt whether he will come.
N. B. Another use of this tense has been already noticed when treating of the imperative. (See Lesson XXXV)
185. The perfect tense expresses a doubtful or contingent action or event, as having been completed some time past, or that will have taken place before the completion of another future action or event; as,
Dudo que haya venido. | I doubt whether he has come.
Yo le daré su libro cuando él me haya dado el mío. | I shall give him his book when he will have given me mine.
Con tal que. | On condition that; provided (that).
Puesto que. | Since, inamuch as; supposing that.
Dado, caso que. | In case.
Hasta. | Until, till.
Aún, cuando. | Even, although.
Por tanto. | Therefore.
Por cuanto. | Seeing that, for.
A menos de. | Unless.
A menos que. | Unless.
También. | Also, too.
Además. | Moreover, besides.
Ya. | Wheter, cither.
Tampoco. | Neither.
Ojalá. | Would to God, God grant.
Vapor. | Steamer.
Globo. | Balloon.
Resfriado. | Cold.
Altura. | Height.
Friolera. | Trifle.
Estado, permanencia. | Stay, permanence.
– Deseo que esté estudiando su lección.
– I wish that he may be studying his lesson.
– Creo que la está estudiando.
– I think he is studying it.
– ¿Piensa usted que tiene razón?
– Do you think he is right?
– No pienso que la tenga.
– I dont think he is.
– No lo creré aunque me lo digan mil.
– I will not believe it though a thousand tell it to me.
– Lo creo aunque él lo niega.
– I believe it, although he denies it.
– Dudo que venga hoy.
– I doubt whether he will come today.
– Dudo que haya venido.
– I doubt his having come.
– Dado el caso que usted no me encuentre en casa, espéreme hasta que venga.
– In case you should not find me at home, wait for me till I come.
– Así lo haré con tal que usted me prometa volver pronto.
– I will do so, on condition that you promise me to come back soon (or quickly).
– Volveré tan pronto como pueda.
– I shall return as soon as I can.
– Temo que no haya recibido mi carta.
– I fear he has not received my letter.
– ¡Ojalá no la reciba!, pero temo que la recibirá.
– God grant that he may not receive it!, but I fear he will (receive it).
– A menos que usted venga primero a verme, yo no iré a verlo.
– Unless you come first to see me, I will not go to see you.
– En el supuesto que él haya venido, ¿le hablará usted?
– Supposing that he has come, will you speak to him?
– Aunque haya venido no le hablaré antes que él me hable.
– Although he may have come I will not speak to him before he speaks to me.
En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de
Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869
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