To guess, to make out, to hit the mark.

Yo acierto. | I guess.
Tú aciertas. | You guess.
Él o ella acierta. | He or She guesses.
Nosostros acertamos. | We guess.
Vosotros acertáis. | You guess.
Ellos o ellas aciertan. | They guess.

Acierta tú. | Guess you.
Acierte él o ella. | Let him guess.
Acertemos nosotros. | Let us guess.
Acertad vosotros. | Guess.
Acierten ellos o ellas. | Let them guess.

PRESENTE (Subjuntivo)
Yo acierte. | I may or can guess.
Tú ciertes. | You may or can guess.
Él o ella acierte. | He may or can guess.
Nosotros acertemos. | We may or can guess.
Vosotros acertéis. | You may or can guess.
Ellos o ellas acierten. | They may or can guess.

Calentar. | To warn, to heat.
Cerrar. | To shut, to close.
Confesar. | To confess.
Despertar. | To awake, to wake.
Gobernar. Acercar. | To govern. To approach.
Merendar. | To lunch.
Negar. | To deny.
Pensar. | To think, to intend.
Quebrar. | To break.
Sentarse. | To sit down.

Vencer. | To vanquish, to overcome.
Resarcir. | To indemnify.
Pagar. | To pay.
Delinquir. | To commit a fault, to transgress.
Escoger. | To choose.
Poseer. | To posses.
Proveer. | To provide.
Huir. | To flee, to fly.
Argüir. | To argue.


161. IRREGULAR VERBS.—All verbs that are not conjugated throughout according to the model verbs already given (hablar, aprender, escribir), are called irregular.

162. It is, however, to be observed, that although some verbs undergo slight changes in their radical letters, they are not to be considered as irregular on that account, inasmuch as those mutations take place in order to preserve throughout the whole conjugation the pronunciation of the root as sounded in the infinitive. This observation should be carefully borne in mind, so as not to take for irregular verbs those which are really not so.
Many verbs ending in car, cer, cir, gar, for instance, undergo respectively such mutations as above alluded to: those in car change the c into qu before e; as,
Tocar. | To touch.
Toqué (instead of tocé). | I touched;

in those in cer and cir, the c is changed into z before a and o; as,
Vencer. | To vanquish.
Venzo (instead of venco). | I vanquish.
Resarcir. | To indemnify.
Resarzo (instead of resarco). | I indemnify;

and lastly, those in gar take a u after the g and before e; as,
Pagar. | To pay.
Pagué (instead of pagé). | I paid.

For the same reason delinquir changes qu into c, before a and o; as, delinco, delinca, delincamos; and escoger, to choose,changes the g into j before a and o; as, escojo, escoja.

163. The verbs which terminate in eer, as creer, to believe; leer, to read; poseer, to possess; proveer, to provide, in those terminations which contain an i, change it into y whenever it is to be joined with another vowel; as, creí, creyó; leí, leyeron; poseí, poseyeron; proveí, proveyeron, &c.

164. The same change is made in the verbs ending in uir, when the u and the i make a part of two different syllables. Thus huir, to fly, makes, in the third person of the preterit definite, huyó; argüir, to argue, makes arguyó, &c.

165. The irregular verbs, about five hundred and fifty in number, may be divided into seven classes, presenting each a certain regularity in their irregularity; that is to say, whose irregularities occur in the same persons and tenses, so that when the pupil has learned seven verbs, or one of each of those groups, he will be able to conjugate almost all the Spanish irregular verbs, save a few that confine their irregularities to themselves and their compounds, and of which the majority have been already introduced in previous lessons, such as haber, tener, &c.; but the learner can find them all conjugated at the end of the book.

Acertar may serve as a model for the conjugation of the first of these seven classes of irregular verbs, just as hablar does for the first conjugation of the regular verbs. The irregularity of acertar, and of all those conjugated like it, consists in taking an i before the last e of the root, in the first, second and third persons singular, and the third person plural of the present of the indicative mood, in the present of the subjunctive, and in the imperative. (See list of the irregular verbs at the end of the book.) In all the other tenses and moods those verbs are regular, and the learner can easily form them according to their respective conjugations.

166. PAGAR may take for its direct object either the value paid or the thing paid for, while the person paid is the indirect object. Por may be used before the thing paid for; as,
Pago los caballos, o pago por los caballos. | I pay for the horses.
Pago mil pesos por los caballos. | I pay a thousand dollars for the horses.
Pago al comerciante mil pesos por los caballos. | I pay the merchant a thousand dollars for the horses.


A ver. | Let us see.
Quizá. | Perhaps.

Delincuente. | Delinquent, offender, transgressor.
Inocente. | Innocent.
Cualquiera. | Any, any one, some one, whatever, whatsoever.
Cualquier parte. | Any place.

Fuego. | Fire.
Jardinero. | Gardener.
Motivo. | Motive.
Sofá. | Sofa.
Consecuencia. | Consequence, conclusion.
Prudencia. | Prudence.
Verduras. | Vegetables.
Deuda. | Debt.


– ¿Le gusta a usted calentarse al fuego?
Do you like warm yourself at the fire?

– Sí, señor, me gusta calentarme al fuego en el invierno cuando hace mucho frío.
Yes, sir, I like to warm myself at the fire in winter when it is very cold.

– ¿Qué calienta el criado?
What is the servant warming?

– Está calentando el café
He is warming the coffee.

– ¿A qué hora despertó usted ayer?
At what hour did you awake yesterday.

– ¿A ver si acierta usted?
Let us see if you can guess?

– No sé, quizá despertó usted a las cinco.
I do not know; perhaps you awoke at five o’clock.

– Despierto todas las mañanas a las cuatro y media.
I awake every morning at half-past four.

– ¿Cierra usted la puerta o la abre?
Are you shutting the door or opening it?

– He cerrado la puerta y abierto la ventana.
I have shut the door and opened the window.

– ¿Es delincuente aquel hombre?
Is that man a transgressor?

– Lo creo, porque huye.
I think so, for he flees.

– Niego la consecuencia; usted no arguye bien, él puede ser inocente y huir por prudencia.
I deny the conclusion; you do not argue correctly (well); he may be innocent and flee (or fly) from prudence.

– ¿Se proveyó usted de flores?
Did yoy provide yourself with flowers?

– Me proveí de frutas y de verduras.
I provided myself with fruit and vegetables.

– ¿Pagó usted por ellas al jardinero?
Did you pay the gardener for them?

– Yo le pagué las frutas y mi hermana las verduras.
I paid him for the fruit, and my sister paid him for the vegetables.

– ¿Piensa usted ir a Europa este verano?
Do you intend to go to Europe this summer?

– Deseo irme a alguna parte.
I wish to go somewhere.

– Hay muchos que niegan tener miedo, pero yo tengo el valor de confesarlo francamente.
There are many who deny being afraid; but I have the courage to confess it freely.

– ¿A qué hora desayuna usted?
At what hour do you breakfast.

– Desayuno a las ocho, meriendo a las dos y como a las seis.
I breakfast at eight, lunch at two, and dine at six.

– ¿Me promete usted venir a comer conmigo hoy?
Will you (do you) promise to come and dine with me today?.

– Entre comer y merendar con usted escojo el merendar, porque usted come demasiado temprano.
Between lunching and dining with you, I choose lunching, for you dine too early.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.



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