LECCIÓN XXXII. LA VOZ PASIVA

VERBOS

Poder. | To be able; may, &c.
Esperar. | To expect, to wait for, to hope.
Castigar. | To punish.
Engañar. | To deceive, to cheat.
Quemar. | To burn.
Tratar. | To treat; to have intercourse with.
Tratar de. | To endeavor, to try, to treat of.
Tratar en. | To deal in.
Seguir. | To follow.

EXPLICACIÓN

153.PASSIVE VOICE.—This voice is formed by the different tenses of the auxiliary ser added to the past participle of the verb, care being taken that the participle agree with the subject, in gender and number, like an adjective; as,
Soy amado. | I am loved.
Hemos sido amados. | We have been loved.
Habéis sido amadas. | You have been loved.
Serás amada. | You will be loved.

(a)The passive voice is, however, formed in Spanish, by estar, instead of ser, when the past participle is used adjectively, that is to say, when the state or condition of the subject is described without any reference to an action; as,
Esta casa está bien situada. | This house is well located.
La carta estaba mal escrita. | The letter was badly written.

154. The passive verb formed by ser is used in Spanish in the present and imperfect of the indicative mood, only when it is designed to express a mental act; as,
Manuel es amado de Margarita. | Emanuel is loved by Margaret.

When a mental act is not expressed, the passive verb being in the present or imperfect of the indicative mood, estar is the auxiliary to be used, and not ser; as,
El libro ha sido escrito por un francés, o el libro está escrito por un francés (instead of es escrito). | The book was written by a Frenchman.

155. When the action of the verb refers to the mind, the preposition de or por may be used after the passive verb, before the agent, and por only, when otherwise; as,
Manuel es amado por Margarita. | Emanuel is loved by Margaret.

156. The passive voice in English is very frequently turned into Spanish by putting the verb which is in the participle past in English, in the same person and number as the auxiliary to be in the English sentence, and placing the pronoun se before it.

157. The latter form is preferred when the object, or receiver, of the action is an inanimate thing, or when the subject, or agent, remains undetermined; as,
Se quemó la casa. | The house was burnt.
Esta casa se hizo en seis meses. | This house was built (made) in six months.

VOCABULARIO

ADVERBIOS Y FRASES ADVERBIALES
Casi. | Almost, nearly.
¿Cuánto tiempo? | How long?
Cuanto antes. | As soon as possible.
De moda. | Fashionable.
De balde, gratis. | Gratis; for nothing.
De cuando en cuando. | From time to time; now and then.
De improviso. | Suddenly, unexpectedly, unawares.
De veras, verdaderamente. | Indeed, truly.
En lo sucesivo. | In future.
Hasta no más. | To the utmost, to the extreme.
Poco a poco. | Little by little, by degrees, gently.
Por supuesto. | Of course.
Tal vez, acaso. | Perhaps.

Pícaro. | Rogue (roguish).
Bribón. | Rascal.
Ejemplo. | Example; instance.
Coqueta. | Coquette.
Sociedad. | Society.
Política. | Politics.

REDACCIÓN

– Mi hermano es castigado algunas veces por no saber las lecciones.
My brother is sometimes punished for not knowing his lessons.

– Y su amigo de V. Alejandro, ¿es castigado alguna vez?
And your friend Alexander, is he ever punished (ever so).

– Lo es, de cuando en cuando; pero mi hermana no ha sido jamás castigada, porque sabe sus lecciones siempre.
He is, now and then; but my sister has never been punished, because she always knows her lessons.

– ¿Ha sido V. engañado alguna vez?
Have you ever been deceived?

– Hasta no más, porque hay muchos pícaros en la sociedad.
To the utmost, for there are a great many rogues in society.

– Esta casa está bien situada.
This house is well situated.

– La carta estaba mal escrita.
The letter was badly written.

– Manuel es amado por Margarita.
Emanuel is loved by Margaret.

– El libro ha sido escrito por un francés.
The book was written by a Frenchman.

– Se quemó (o fue quemada) la casa.
The house was burnt.

– Esta casa se hizo en seis meses.
This house was built (made) in six months.

– ¿En cuánto tiempo se hizo la suya?
How long was yours in building (making?

– En cosa de tres meses.
About three months.

– ¿Cuánto tiempo necesita usted para escribir esa carta?
How long shall you be in writting that letter?

– Está casi acabada; estoy con usted en un minuto.
It is almost finished; I shall be (am) with you in a moment (minute).

– Poco a poco; usted va muy deprisa.
Gently; you go very quick.

– Tal vez; pero tengo prisa y quiero acabar pronto.
Perhaps so; but I am in haste, and I want to get done (finish) soon.

– ¿De veras?
Indeed?

– Por supuesto, tengo que ir a Correos.
Of course, I have to go to the post-office.

– Dios está en todas partes, lo sabe y lo puede todo, y nos perdonará si tratamos de hacer nuestro deber.
God is everywhere; He knows all things, and nothing is impossible for Him (can do all); and He will pardon us, if we endeavor to do our duty.

– ¿Está su reloj de moda?
Is your watch fashionable?

– Sí, señor; pero no me gusta, porque es muy pequeño.
Yes, sir; but I do not like it, because it is too small.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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