LECCIÓN XXIX. EL PRETÉRITO ANTERIOR. LOS ADVERBIOS

VERBOS

PRETÉRITO ANTERIOR
Hube hablado, hubiste hablado, hubo hablado, hubimos hablado, hubisteis hablado, hubieron hablado. | I had spoken, &c.
Hube aprendido, hubiste aprendido, hubo aprendido, hubimos aprendido, hubisteis aprendido, hubieron aprendido. | I had learned, &c.
Hube escrito, hubiste escrito, hubo escrito, hubimos escrito, hubisteis escrito, hubieron escrito. | I had written, &c.

Ver. | To see.
Mirar. | To look.
Esperar. | To hope, to wait for.

EXPLICACIÓN

137. THE PRETERIT ANTERIOR is used to express a past action or event that took place immediately before another action or event also past. It is never used except after some of the adverbs of time; cuando, when; así que, as soon as; no bien, no sooner ; apenas, searcely; luego que, immediately after; después que, soon after; as,

Cuando le hube conocido. | When I had made his acquaintance.
Apenas hubo salido cuando yo vine. | Scareely had he gone out when I came.
No bien le hube visto cuando le conocí. | No sooner had I seen him than I knew him.

This tense is very little used, not only for the reason already mentioned, of its being preceded by an adverb of time, but also because its place may be elegantly supplied by the preterit definite: as,
Cuando le conocí. | When I had known him.
Apenas salió cuando yo vine. | Scareely had he gone out when I came.
No bien le vi cuando le conocí. | No sooner had I seen him than I knew him.

138. The adverbs of manner and quality, in Spanish as well as in English, are generally derived from adjectives.

139. To form an adverb from an adjective, it is sufficient to add mente to the adjective, if the latter has the same termination in both genders; as,

Frecuente, frecuentemente.
Gramatical, gramaticalmente.

If the adjective has a different termination for each gender, then mente is added to the feminine; as,
Incomoda, incómodamente.
Perfecta, perfectamente.

When two or more of these adverbs follow each other, only
the last one takes mente, the others taking the feminine termination a; as,
Cicerón habló sabio y elocuentemente. | Cicero spoke learnedly and eloquently.

140. These adverbs terminating in mente, being derived from adjectives, admit like these the degrees of comparison; as,
Fácilmente. | Easily.
Más fácilmente. | More easily.
Menos fácilmente. | Less easily.
Tan fácilmente. | As, or so easily.
Muy fácilmente o facilísimamente. | Very easily, or most easily.

141. Those adverbs may, without any change in the sense, be substituted by a substantive governed by the preposition con; as,

Él vive cómodamente, o con comodidad. | He lives comfortably.

VOCABULARIO

Así que. | As soon as.
Apenas. | Scarcely.
No bien. | No sooner.
Tampoco (conj.). | Neither, not either.
También (adverb.). | Also, likewise.
También (conj.). | As well, moreover.
Además. | Moreover, besides.
Primeramente o en primer lugar. | Firstly.
Segundamente o en segundo lugar. | Secondly.
Frecuente. | Frequent.
Frecuentemente. | Frequently.
Cómodo. | Convenient, confortable.
Cómodamente. | Conveniently, comfortably.
Incómodo. | Inconvenient,unconfortable.
Incómodamente. | Inconveniently, unconfortably.
Probable. | Probable, likely.
Probablemente. | Probably, likely.
Perfecto. | Perfect.
Perfectamente. | Perfectly.
Correcto. | Correct.
Correctamente. | Correctly.
Ojo. | Eye.
Vista. | Sight, View.
Correo. | Post, post-office, courrier.
Comodidad. | Convenience, comfort.
Lugar. | Place.
Milla. | Mile.

REDACCIÓN

– Cuando le hube conocido le amé.
When I had known him I loved him.

– Apenas hubo salido él cuando yo entré.
Scareely had he gone out when I came in.

– No bien le hube visto cuando le conocí.
No sooner had I seen him than I knew him.

– Así que hube escrito la carta la llevé al correo.
As soon as I had written the letter I took it to the post-office.

– Cuando le conocí le amé.
When I knew him I loved him.

– ¿Iba V. frecuentemente al teatro el año pasado?
Did you go often to the theatre last year?

– Iba frecuentísimamente, or muy frecuentemente.
I went very often.

– Él vive en esa casa cómodamente, o con comodidad.
He lives comfortably, or with comfort, in that house

– Él escribe correcta y perfectamente; pero V. escribe más fácilmente.
He writes correctly and perfectly; but you write more easily.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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