LECCIÓN XXVII. LOS PRONOMBRES. Continuación

VERBOS

Decir. To say, to tell.

PRESENTE
Digo, dices, dice, decimos, decís, dicen.
I say, or tell, &c.

PRETÉRITO
Dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijísteis, dijeron.
I said, or told, &c.

FUTURO
Diré, dirás, dirá, diremos, diréis, dirán.
I shall or will say, or tell, &c.

PRETÉRITO PERFECTO
He dicho, has dicho, ha dicho, hemos dicho, habéis dicho, han dicho.
I have said, or told, &c.

FUTURO PERFECTO
Habré dicho, habrás dicho, habrá dicho, habremos dicho, habréis dicho, habrán dicho.
I shall or will have said, or told, &c.

Excusar. | To excuse.
Perdonar. | To pardon.
Creer. | To believe, to think.
Ofender. | To offend.
Llamar. | To call, to knock.
Enseñar. | To teach, to show.

EXPLICACIÓN

127. OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS, continued.—The third person being governed by to in English, either expressed or understood, is in Spanish rendered by se, if the object of the verb be a pronoun in the third person; as,
Le compró un ramillete, y se lo mandó. | He bought her a bouquet, and sent it to her.
Les escribiré tres cartas, y se las mandaré. | I shall write them three letters, and send them to them.
Mi criado se lo dará. | My servant will give it to him.

This is done for the sake of euphony, changing the first of the two pronouns, whatever its full form may be (le, la or les), into se. This rule applies to all pronouns, after as well as before the verb; as,

Ella se lo ha prometido (instead of ella le lo). | She has promised it to her.
Prometiéndoselo (instead of prometiéndolelo). | Promising it to him.
¿Le leiste la carta?. | Did you read the letter to him?
Ya se la leí (instead of ya le la leí). | I read it to him (already).

128. When two first objective cases occur in the sentence, one of which is the object of the verb, and the other is governed, in English, by the preposition to, either expressed or understood, the object of the verb is to be placed last; as,
Ella me lo dijo. | She told it to me.
Yo se lo di. | I gave it to him.

129. But if the object of the verb be the reflective pronoun, it must be placed first; as,
Luego se me excusó. | He excused himself immediately to me.

130. Both the objective cases belonging to the same person are sometimes used together in Spanish, in order to give more energy to the expression, and then the second must always be preceded by a; as,
Mi madre me ama a mí. | My mother loves me.
Tu amigo te busca a ti. | Your friend seeks thee.
Él se lo dijo a ellas. | He told it to them.
Yo les di las noticias a ellos. | I told them the news.
Yo se las daré a ustedes. | I will tell them to you.

131. The second objective case of any of the persons should never be used in the sentence, preceded by a, as the object of the verb, without being accompanied by the first (except after comparatives); therefore, such expressions as these: a él quiero, a tí amo, are incorrect, and should be thus: a él le quiero, a tí te amo. The place of the second objective case in sentences of this kind is restricted to the following rules:

1st. If the first objective case precede the verb, the second may be placed either before the first, or after the verb; as,
A ti te amo, o te amo a ti. | I love thee.

2d. If the first objective case follows the verb, the second must be placed after the first; as,
Amándole a él. | Loving him.

132. It may appear that the personal pronouns él, la, lo, los and las might be confounded with the articles el, la, lo, los, las, having the same form; but they are easily distinguished, since the articles must always be occompanied by and precede nouns; as, el tiempo, la salud, los soldados, las obras, lo bueno; while, on the other hand, the personal pronouns are only employed with verbs, and placed before or after them; as,
La llevaron, or lleváronla. | They carried it.
Lo buscaron, or buscáronlo. | They looked for it
.
133. Whenever emphasis is required to be laid on any noun or pronoun, the adjective mismo is used in Spanish for that purpose; as,
Él no ama a nadie más que a sí mismo. | He loves no one but himself.
Este mismo hombre lo hará. | This very man will do it.
Yo mismo lo haré. | I will do it myselt.

VOCABULARIO

Ahora. | Now.
Mismo (adverb). | Just, very.
Mismo. | Same, self.
Necesario. | Necessary.
Preciso. | Precise, needful.
Regular. | middling.
Despacho. | Despatch.
Estudio. | Study.
Humor. | Humor, disposition.
Sujeto. | A person, subject, topic.
Asunto. | Subject, business, matter.
Ramillete. | Bouquet.
Parte. | Part.
Falta. | Fault, mistake.
Esperanza. | Hope.
Puerta. | Door.
Noticia. | News.

REDACCIÓN

– Le compró un ramillete, y se lo mandó.
He bought her a bouquet, and sent it to her.

– Le escribiré tres cartas, y se las mandaré.
I shall write them three letters, and send them to them.

– Ella se lo ha prometido.
She has promised it to her.

– ¿Qué está usted haciendo con ese libro? Estoy enseñándoselo a Manuel.
What are you doing with that book? I am showing it to Emanuel.

– ¿Le leíste la carta? Ya se la leí.
Did you read the letter to him? I did. (I read it to him already.)

– Ella me lo dijo.
She told it to me.

– Yo se lo di.
I gave it to him.

– Mi madre me ama a mí.
My mother loves me.

– Tu amigo te busca a ti.
Your friend looks for thee.

– Yo les di las noticias a ellos.
I told them the news.

– ¿Yo se las daré a usted?
I will tell them to you.

– A ti te amo, o te amo a ti.
I love thee.

– ¿Qué le ha dicho a usted su hermano? No me ha dicho nada.
What has your brother told you? He has told me nothing.

– ¿Le dije yo eso a usted? Usted no me lo dijo.
Did I tell you that? You did not tell it to me.

– ¿Se lo ha dicho él a usted? Me lo ha dicho.
Has he told it to you? He has told it to me.

– ¿Quiere usted decir eso a sus amigos? Quiero decírselo a ellos.
Will you tell your friends that? I will tell it to them.

– ¿Quién llama a la puerta? Soy yo mismo.
Who knocks at the door? It is I (myself).

– ¿Tiene buen humor su amigo de usted? Sí, señor, tiene buen humor cuando le van bien los negocios.
Has your friend a good disposition? Yes, sir, he is good humored when business goes well with him.

– ¿Gana ese sujeto mucho en ese asunto? Él no gana para si mismo; pero gana para otros.
Does that man make (or earn) much in that business? He does not make for himself; but he makes for others.

– Tengo esperanza de que me perdonará.
I have hope he will pardon me.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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