LECCIÓN XXVI. LOS PRONOMBRES PERSONALES

VERBOS

Dar, dando, dado.
To give, giving, given.

PRESENTE
Doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan.
I give, you give, he/she gives, we give, you give, they give.

PRETÉRITO
Dí, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron.
I gave, you gave, he/she gave, we gave, you gave, they gave.

FUTURO
Daré, darás, dará, daremos, daréis, darán.
I will give, you will give, he/she will give, we will give, you will give, they will give.

PRETÉRITO PERFECTO
He dado, has dado, ha dado, hemos dado, habéis dado, han dado.
I have given, you have given, he/she has given, we have given, you have given, they have given.

FUTURO PERFECTO
Habré dado, habrás dado, habrá dado, habremos dado, habréis dado, habrán dado.
I will have given, you will have given, he/she will have given, we will have given, you will have given, they will have given.

Ganar. | To gain, earn, win.

PRONOUNS

Yo (Sign., Nom.) | I.
Me (1st, Objt.) | Me, or to me.
A mí (2d, Ojt.) | Me, or to me.

Nosotros (Plur., Nom.) | We.
Nos (1st, Objt.) | Us, or to us.
A nosotros (2d, Ojt.) | Us, or to us.

Tú (Sign., Nom.) | You.
Te (1st, Objt.) | You, or to you.
A ti (2d, Ojt.) | You, or to you.

Vosotros (Plur., Nom.) | You.
Os (1st, Objt.) |You, or to you.
A vosotros (2d, Ojt.) | You, or to you.

Él (Sign., Nom.) | He.
Le (1st, Objt.) | Him, or to him.
A él (2d, Ojt.) | Him, or to him.

Ellos (Plur., Nom.) | They.
Los, les  (1st, Objt.) | Them, to them.
A ellos (2d, Ojt.) | Them, to them.

Ella (Sign., Nom.) | She.
La, le (1st, Objt.) | Her, to her.
A ella (2d, Ojt.) | Her, to her.

Ellas  (Plur., Nom.)They.
Las, les  (1st, Objt.) | Them, to them.
A ellas (2d, Ojt.) | Them, to them.

(Sing. and Plur.)
Se (1st., Obj.) A sí (2d., Obj.) | Himself, herself, itself, themselves; or to himself, to herself, to itself, to themselves.

(Neuter Form)
Ello (Nom.) | It.
Lo (1st., Obj.) | It.
A ello (2d., Obj.) | To it.

EXPLICACIÓN

116. SUBJECT OR NOMINATIVE. – To what has already been said, in Lesson X, relative to pronouns as subjects or nominative cases to verbs, we shall here simply add, that they may at all times precede their verbs, unless the latter be in the imperative mood, or be used interrogatively; examples:
Yo estudio. | I study.
Tú escribes. | You write.
Vengan ellos. | Let them come.
¿Lee ella? | Does she read.

116. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. – In Spanish there is a peculiarity to be observed amongst the personal pronouns: that is, that they have two objective cases; one of which can never be used with prepositions, and the other never without one.

117. THE OBJECTIVE CASE, when not preceded by 3 preposition, is affixed to infinitives, imperatives and gerunds; as,
Amarla. | To love her.
Amémosle. | Let us love him.
Amándolos. | Loving them.
Habiéndola amado. | Having loved her.
Cómprales algo. | Buy them something.
Habiéndolos hallado. | Having found them.

118. In some tenses the verb drops the final letter in the first and second persons plural, when they are followed by nos or os; as,
Amámonos instead of amámosnos. We loved each other.
Amaos instead of amados. Love each other.

In the first case, the reason of this is perhaps to soften the pronunciation of the first word; and in the second the d is dropped, in order that the imperative be not confounded with the past participle. Nevertheless, we say idos, go, and not ios; but this is the only exception to the rule.

119. The objective case may sometimes elegantly follow the verb, but rarely when the sentence does not begin by the verb; as,
Me llevó al teatro. | He took me to the theatre.

120. When one verb governs another in the infinitive mood, the objective case referring to the second verb may be placed either before the governing verb, or after the governed one ; as,
Quiero llevarle, or le quiero llevar. | I wish to take him.

121. PREPOSITIONS, when expressed, always govern the second objective case; as,
Para mí. | For me.
Sin ti. | Without thee.
Hacia ellos. | Towards them.

122. MÍ, TI, SÍ, when preceded by con, take go after them, and are joined to the preposition; as,
Conmigo. | With me.
Contigo. | With you.
Consigo. | With him, her, them, it.

123. ENTRE is used with the nominative case of the first person singular, in this expression,
Entre tú y yo. | Between you and me;

but in every other instance it governs the second objective case; as,
Entre sí. | Between themselves.
Entre nosotros. | Between us.

124. The second objective case is always used after comparative; as,
Te quiero más que a él. | I love you better than him.

125. When in English the objective case of the first or second person is the object of the verb, or of the preposition to, expressed or understood, we use the first case; as,
Yo te necesito. | I want you.
Ella nos habló. | She spoke to us.
Él me amará. | He will love me.

126. In Lesson X we explained the objective case of the third person when it is the object of the English verb; but if the third person in English be governed by the preposition to, expressed or understood, we render it by le, les, for both genders; as,
Nosotros le hablamos. | We spoke to him.
Yo le escribí. | I wrote to her.
Ella les dió. | She gave them.

REDACCIÓN

– ¿Conoces a aquellas señoras? Deseo conocerlas.
Do you know those ladies? I desire to know them.

– ¿Me prometes llevarme a tu casa?
– Do you me to take me to their house?

– ¿Qué le diste a mi primo? Quiso darme unas flores; pero yo no quise recibirlas.
– What did my cousin give you? He wanted to give me some flowers; but I would not receive them.

– ¿Quieres venir conmigo al teatro? No iré contigo, porque mi padre quiere llevarme con él.
Wilt you come with me to the theatre? I will not go with thee, because my father wants to take me with him.

– Son estas flores para ti? No son para mí; son para ti.
– Are these flowers for you? They are not for me, they are for you.

– Ella nos habló en el teatro.
She spoke to us in the theatre.

– Él me amará con el tiempo.
He will love me in time.

– Nosotros le hablamos en el concierto.
We spoke to hi at the concert.

– Yo le escribí una carta.
– I wrote him a letter.

– Ella les dio un libro.
She gave them a book.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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Esta entrada está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported.

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