LECCIÓN XLVIII. La correspondencia de los tiempos verbales.

Afirmar. | To affirm.
Afligir. | To afflict.
Admitir. | To admit, to accept.
Atreverse. | To dare.
Criticar. | To criticise.
Condescender. | To condescend, to consent.
Convencer. | To convince.
Declarar. | To declare.
Depender. | To depend.
Disponer. | To dispose, to arrange.
Diferenciar. | To differ.
Edificar. | To edifj, to build.
Entretenerse. | To amuse.
Fabricar. | To construct, to make, to build.
Suponer. | To suppose.
Nombrar. | To name, to appoint.
Influir. | To influence, to affect.
Ocultar. | To conceal, to hide.
Observar. | To observe.
Obedecer. | To obey.
Proporcionar. | To proportion, to procure, to offer, to afford.
Pretender. | To pretend, to lay claim to, to aspire to, to sue for.
Publicar. | To publish.
Quejarse. | To complain, to moan.
Regularizar. | To regulate.
Reflexionar. | To reflect.
Ridiculizar. | To ridicule.
Reformar. | To reform.

EXPLICACIÓN

235. Correspondence of the Tenses with each other. — When one verb is connected with another by a relative, there are many combinations in which the determining and the determined verbs may be found; both may be in the indicative or in the subjunctive mood, or one in the indicative and the other in the subjunctive; but both cannot be in the infinitive or in the imperative; as,

I guess the motive for which those same persons who have flattered us before criticise, did criticise, criticised, have criticised, will criticise us afterward.

Leíamos una noticia que acababa (or acaba) de publicarse. | We were reading some news that had (or has) just been published.

Contaba la desgracia que los afligía. | He was telling the misfortune that afiflicted them.

No seré yo el primero que se atreva. | I shall not be the first to dare.

Aprended vosotros los que os quejáis, quejabais, quejasteis, habéis quejado, quejareis. | Learn, you who complain, were complaining, complained, had complained, will complain.

236. The determined verb is put in the infinitive whenever it has the same subject as the determining verb; as,

Él quiere jugar. | He wishes to play.
Nosotros queremos estudiar. | We wish to study.

This is the reason why the auxiliaries haber de, tener que, deber, always require the governed verb in the infinitive, because the subject, or nominative, is the same for both verbs; as,

Él hubo de condescender. | He had to consent.
Tengo que callar. | I have to be silent.
Ellos deben estar muy ocupados. | They must be very busy.

An exception to this rule occurs when the determining verb expresses a firm and decided affirmation; and so we say:

Quiero (or pienso) salir. | I wish (or intend) to go out.
Afirmo (dcclaro) que saldre. | I affirm (or declare) that I shall go out.

We must also except the verb decir, which cannot govern another verb in the infinitive, because whenever we employ it to announce our own actions it is not with the purpose of relating them, but to manifest our resolution to execute them; as,

Digo que saldré. | I say I shall go out.

237. When the determining verb is ser, or any impersonal verb, and the governed verb has no subject, the latter is placed in the infinitive; as,

Es útil estudiar las lenguas. | It is useful to study languages.
Conviene a los hombres instruirse. | It is the interest of mankind to acquire knowledge.

And such is the natural construction, because the true subject of this proposition is the very infinitive itself, which stands there as a noun, an office that cannot be performed by the other moods. The above sentences are equivalent to these:

El estudio de las lenguas es útil. | The study of languages is useful.
La instrucción conviene a los hombres. | It is the interest of mankind to acquire knowledge.

238. But if the determined verb also has a nominative, then it must be placed in the subjunctive; as,

Conviene que yo estudie. | It is my interest to study.
Es útil que los hombres se instruyan. | It is useful to mankind to possess knowledge.

Those verbs that express command, govern either of the two forms, since we say equally well:

Les mandó callar. Les mandó que callasen. | He ordered them to be silent.

239. When the determining verb is in the infinitive, in the present or future of the indicative, or in the imperative, connected with the governed verb by a conjunction, this latter verb is put in the subjunctive mood, ordinarily in the present or in the future; as,

Impedir que se cometan injusticias es el objeto de las leyes. | To prevent the commission of injustice, such is the object of the laws.
Deseo que me comprendas. | I wish you to understand me.
No lograrás que le castiguen. | You will not succeed in having him punished.
Se le ayudará si fuere necesario. | He will have help if it be necessary.

240. The preterit indefinite and compound future of the indicative govern the determined verb in the present or imperfect of the subjunctive; as,

He sentido que no se convenza (convenciera or convenciese). | I was sorry he should not be (or was not) convinced.
Habrá llamado para que le abran (abrieran or abriesen) la puerta. | He knocked, of course, in order that the door may (or might) be opened.

241. When the determining verb is in the indicative, it generally governs the determined one in the same mood, if the nominative is the same for both verbs; as,

Creo que le convenceré fácilmente. | I think I shall convince him easily.
Reflexionaré lo que he de hacer. | I shall reflect on what I have to do.

But if each verb has a different nominative, the second verb may be placed in the indicative or in the subjunctive; as,

Pensé que iba a matarla. | I thought he was going to kill her.
Pensé que me enviara (or enviaría) la carta. | I thought he would send me the letter.

Much more might be said upon this subject, did we not fear to exceed the limits prescribed by the nature of the present work.

VOCABULARIO

¡Bravo! | Very good! Bravo!
Bruto. | Brutish.
Cierto. | Certain.
Aéreo. | Airy, aeriaL
Angelical. | Angelical.
Ideal. | Ideal.
Interior. | Interior.
Incompleto. | Incomplete.
Imperfecto. | Imperfect.
Exterior. | Exterior.
Extraño. | Strange.
Igual. | Equal, the same.
Humano. | Humane.
Positivo. | Positive.
Real. | Real, royal.
Arquitecto. | Architect.
Anciano. | Old man.
Ciego. | Blind.
Bruto. | Brute.
Idiota. | Idiot.
Espacio. | Space.
Complemento. | Complement.
Goce. | Enjoyment.
Mai. | Evil.
Material. | Material.
Objeto. | Object.
Palacio. | Palace.
Pájaro. | Bird.
Enfermo. | Sick.
Prisionero. | Prisoner.
Pensamiento. | Thought.
Castillos en el aire. | Castles in the air.
Carrera. | Career.
Desgracia. | vMisfortuue.
Diferencia. | Difference.
Curiosidad. | Curiosity.
Exageración. | ‘^Exaggeration.
Franqueza. | >iFrankness.
Juventud. | Youth.
Ilusión. | Illusion.
Felicidad. | Happiness.
Risa. | Laugh, laughter.
Realidad. | ‘^Reality.
Ruindad. | Meanness.
Riquezas. | Riches.

Lo que sé decir. | What I knoTT.
Sin que usted me lo diga. | Without you telling me.
Volver a las andadas. | To do so again, to return to (one’s) old habits.
Para mí tengo. | It is my opinion.
A trueque. | On condition.
Sin embargo. | Nevertheless, notwithstanding.
De modo. | In such a manner, that, so that.

 

REDACCIÓN

- Leíamos una noticia que acababa (or acaba) de publicarse.
- We were reading some news just published (that had just been published, or has just been published). 

- Contaba la desgracia que los afligió.
– He was telling the misfortune that afflicted them.

- No seré yo el primero que se atreva.
I shall not be the first to dare.

- Aprended vosotros, los que os quejáis, quejabais, quejasteis, habéis quejado, quejareis.
Know, you who complain, were complaining, complained, had complained, will complain.

- Él quiere jugar.
He will (is determined to) play.

- Nosotros queremos estudiar.
– We will study.

- Él hubo de condescender.
– He had to consent.

- Tengo que callar.
– I have to be silent.

- Ellos deben estar muy ocupados.
– They must be very busy.

- Quiero (or pienso) salir.
– I wish (or intend to) go out.

- Afirmo (or declaro) que saldré.
– I affirm (or declare) that I shall go out.

- Digo que saldré.
– I say that I shall go out.

- Es útil estudiar las lenguas.
– It is useful to study languages.

- Conviene a los hombres instruirse.
It is man’s interest to acquire knowledge.

- El estudio de las lenguas es útil.
– The study of languages is useful.

- La instrucción conviene a los hombres.
– Knowledge is useful to man.

- Conviene que yo estudie.
– It is my interest to study.

- Es útil que las personas se instruyan.
– It is useful to mankind to possess knowledge.

- Les mandó callar. Les mandó que callasen.
– He ordered them to be silent.

- Impedir que se cometan injusticias es el objeto de las leyes.
– To prevent the commission of injustice, such is the object of laws.

- Deseo que me comprendas.
– I wish you to understand me.

- No lograrás que le castiguen.
– You will not succeed in having him punished.

- Se le ayudará si fuere necesario.
– He shall have help if it be necessary.

- He sentido que no se convenza (convenciera or convenciese).
– I was sorry he would not be convinced (or was not convinced).

- Habrá llamado para que le abran (abrieran or abriesen) la puerta.
– He knocked, of course, in order that the door may (or might) be opened.

- Creo que le convenceré fácilmente.
– I think I shall convince him easily.

- Reflexionaré lo que he de hacer.
– I shall reflect on what I shall do.

- Pensé que iba a matarla.
– I thought he was going to kill her.

- Pensé que enviara (or enviaría) la carta.
I thought he would send the letter.

En las lecciones de este blog se ha seguido la obra de

Alberto de Tornos “The Combined Spanish Method”. D. APPLETON ~ COMPANY (New York) 1869

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